AMPATH started using the AMPATH Medical Record System (AMRS) in 2006 as its sole medical record. AMRS is an implementation of OpenMRS (http://openmrs.org), an open source EMR currently being widely deployed in Eastern and Southern Africa. AMPATH clinics utilize AMRS to collect and manage patient level data for clinical care, program reporting, and research purpose. Paper-based initial and follow-up forms (adult and pediatric) are completed by the clinician during a clinic visit. These standardized forms capture demographics, clinical, laboratory and pharmacologic information. These data are then stored in AMRS as coded concepts to allow for easy retrieval and analysis. The concept dictionary is thus at the core of the EMR, and includes terms for diagnoses, tests, procedures, drugs, and other general terms for questions and potential answers.